For instance, an extreme cooperation exists between plants and the mycorrhizal fungi that grow on their roots and aid the plant in absorbing nutrients from the soil.
; Wray, Naomi.Kluwer Academic, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.126 Fitness is measured by an organism's ability to survive and reproduce, which determines the size of its genetic contribution to the next generation."Recruitment of enzymes and stress proteins as lens crystallins"."The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis".Despite the constant introduction of new variation through mutation and gene flow, most of the genome of a species is identical in all individuals of that species.A b Gould, Stephen Jay (July 19, 1994).
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Chastain, Erick; Livnat, Adi; Papadimitriou, Christos ; Vazirani, Umesh (July 22, 2014).
"The Imaginary Lamarck: A Look at Bogus 'History' in Schoolbooks".
"Cooperation within and among species"."Fossils, molecules and embryos: new perspectives on the Cambrian explosion" (PDF)."Does the 'Ring of Life' ring true?".These relationships involve the life history of the organism, its position in the food chain and its geographic range.Evolution and the Levels of Selection.23 In the mid-19th century, Charles Darwin formulated the scientific theory of evolution by natural selection, published in his book On the Origin of Species (1859).As a result, genes lazy deep purple tab pdf close together on a chromosome may not always be shuffled away from each other and genes that are close together tend to be inherited together, a phenomenon known as linkage."Evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in prokaryotes and eukaryotes".Bibcode : 1980E PSL.47.370M.Doebley and Timothy.